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Andrew L. Johnson (First published by 2001 10 25)

ItWorld is discontinuing the Perl newsletter, so this is my farewell article. That being the case, I decided to try to leave you with a few tidbits of wisdom and suggestions of where else to turn for help.

The first place to turn for help is perl itself — running perl with the -w switch and ‘use strict’ enabled will help you catch many little bugs, typos, and questionable practices.

    #!/usr/bin/perl -w
    use strict;

If you know your program will be used only with Perl-5.6 and later version you can use the ‘warnings’ pragma to turn on warnings instead of the -w switch (this pragma allows more control over warnings, see the ‘perllexwarn’ manpage for further information):

    use strict;
    use warnings;

The perl distribution also comes with copious amounts of documentation that you can read via a browser (if the docs are installed in .html format), the unix ‘man’ utility, or the supplied ‘perldoc’ utility. The 3 major pages (documents) you should be familiar with are:

    perldoc perl     --> the intro perl documentation
    perldoc perlfaq  --> many frequently asked questions (and answers)
    perldoc perlfunc --> documentation on builtin functions

There are quite a few mailing lists you can participate in at various levels (including lists for beginners, module authors, specific modules or distributions, and even a ‘fun with perl’ list). Information can be found at:

The ‘use Perl’ site publishes news and informative tidbits (along with other features), also publishes articles on various themes and at various levels, and The Perl Journal (now part of SysAdmin magazine) is a very good print publication:

Join or start your own local chapter of a ‘Perl Mongers’ group by checking out this site:

And, lastly, the Perl Monks site is a web forum for questions, answers, tutorials, and discussions on Perl related topics (there are quite a few very knowledgeable individuals there):

And, last but certainly not least, do not forget about CPAN (comprehensive perl archive network) — there are loads and loads of free modules there that you should not ignore. Everything from dealing with CSV files to networking to graphics manipulation (and a whole lot more) can be found therein. A few CPAN entry points:

I have very much enjoyed writing these (80+) weekly articles, and I appreciate the numerous comments and suggestions I have received from many of you (even if I didn’t get around to writing on all of the suggested topics). Thank you and I wish you all the best of luck with your Perl programming and perhaps I’ll run into some of you in the future.

            Best regards,


Using a do-block

Andrew L. Johnson (First published by 2001-10-18)

Perl has a special kind of block called a do-block (the ‘do’ keyword followed by a block). This kind of block can be used as a term in an expression, or it can take a statement modifier.

When used as a term, the result returned is the value of the last statement evaluated in the block (rather like a subroutine’s default return value):

    my $in = do{print "Enter a number:";<STDIN>};
    print $in;

The context of the return value is the context of the expression (in the above case, since we assigned to a scalar, scalar context). The above isn’t a terribly useful example — but what about when you want to localize a global for a limited scope? Consider reading in an entire file into a scalar (inside of a larger script where you don’t want to change $/ for the duration of the script):

    my $file = 'data';
    open(FILE, $file) || die "Can't open $file: $!";
    my $contents;
        local $/;   # $/ is locally undefined
        $contents = <FILE>;
    print $contents;

A simpler method using a do-block might be:

    my $file = 'data';
    open(FILE, $file) || die "Can't open $file: $!";
    my $contents = do{local $/;<FILE>};
    print $contents;

With a statement modifier, this kind of block allows for a ‘run at least once’ form of the while statement:

    my $rand = int(rand(10)) + 1;
    my $guess;
        print "Enter your guess: ";
        $guess = <STDIN>;
    } while $guess != $rand;
    print "Yes: the number is $guess";

This allows us to use what looks like an uninitialized value in the conditional — it works only because the condition is tested after each block (by which time the $guess variable has a value).

The do block is also convenient for switch or case like statement blocks:

    my $rand = int(rand(10)) + 1;
        print "Enter your guess: ";
        chomp(my $guess = <STDIN>);
        $guess < $rand && do{print "Too low\n"; redo};
        $guess > $rand && do{print "Too high\n";redo};
    print "You guessed it!\n";

These case like examples could easily be solved using other means (like standard if/else statements), this is just another example of TMTOWTDI (there’s more than one way to do it).


The /c Regex Modifier

Andrew L. Johnson (First published by 2001-10-11)

To understand the /c regex modifier you first need to know how the /g modifier and the \G anchor behave. The /g modifier, as you probably already know, means ‘keep applying the regex until it fails or we hit the end of the string’:

    $_ = '123456abc789';
    my $pattern = '\d\d\d';
    while ( m/($pattern)/g ) {
        print "$1\n";

The above will match each sequence of 3 digits and execute the loop. Each string has a positional marker associated with it that records where the last regex match ended — you can access or set this marker directly with the pos() function — thus the regex engine knows where to continue searching from in the string. When the pattern can no longer be found, the match operator returns false (ending the while loop in this case) and the positional marker is reset to 0 (the beginning of the string).

One thing to notice is that the above snippet will skip over the ‘abc’ part of the string — that is, on the third attempt to match, we start trying to match at position 6 (right before the ‘a’) but we aren’t forced to actually match at that point. To force the match to succeed where we left off we would do:

    $_ = '123456abc789';
    my $pattern = '\d\d\d';
    while ( m/\G($pattern)/g ) {
        print "$1\n";

In this case, each occurrence of $pattern must be found immediately following the positional marker (either the beginning of the string, or wherever the last successful match left off). Thus, this snippet only finds and prints ‘123’, and ‘456’, and then the match fails.

What if we wanted to be able to match different patterns while stepping through the string (say, sequences of three digits or three lowercase letters)? We could set up an alternation pattern and then test the captured results:

    $_ = '123456abc789';
    my $pattern = '\d\d\d|[a-z]{3}';
    while ( m/\G($pattern)/g ) {
        my $result = $1;
        if ($result =~ /\d/) {
            print "We got 3 digits\n";
        } else {
            print "We got 3 letters\n";

That’s not horrible, though we needed to test for numbers twice (once in the original pattern, and once in the if test). This could get more cumbersome if we had more choices to distinguish (and slower because alternations in regexen are somewhat slow).

The /c modifier allows a /g match to fail without resetting the positional marker — so we can try another match:

    $_ = '123XYZ456abc789';
    while (1) {
        print "Got digits ($1)\n" and next if m/\G(\d\d\d)/gc;
        print "Got UCase  ($1)\n" and next if m/\G([A-Z]{3})/gc;
        print "Got LCase  ($1)\n" and next if m/\G([a-z]{3})/gc;
        print "End of Parsing\n"  and last if m/\G$/gc;
        print "Parse Error at position: ", pos(), "\n" and last;

Now we never skip over any data that we haven’t accounted for, yet when any regex fails we simply try the next the regex from the same position. Our parse of the string only fails if all of the regexen fail and we hit the last line of the loop. The above succeeds through the string, but if you try $_ = ‘123ABC456ab789’; you’ll get a parse error message at position 9. If you tried this without the /c modifier you would have a problem because the if the first regex fails it would reset the positional marker to 0 (meaning you wouldn’t be starting where you wanted with the next regex).


Logical Operators

Andrew L. Johnson (First published by 2001-09-27)

Perl has operators to perform logical OR/AND/NOT operations, and they come in two forms: a high precedence symbolic form: ||, &&, !, and a low precedence form: or, and, not (respectively).

Logical AND and OR are binary operators and are often used to combine expressions in a conditional statement:

    if ($value > 5 && $value < 10) {
        print "$value is between 5 and 10 exclusive\n";

    if (lc($input) eq 'q' || lc($input) eq 'quit'){
        warn "Quitting application now\n";

The NOT operator is a unary operator that returns the negated (opposite) truth value of its argument:

    if ( not $done ) {                  # also: if(!$done){
        print "We are not finished\n";

Often we can use either the high or low precedence forms, however, occasionally precedence matters — consider the following mistaken expression and how the logical test is actually parsed:

    if (not $a && not $b) {
        print "\$a and \$b are false\n";

The programmer wanted to test that both $a AND $b were false. If $a is false then not($a) would be true, and similarly for $b, but this expression obviously fails. That is because the precedence of && is much higher than the precedence of ‘not’ so the expression is actually parsed as:

    if ( not ($a && (not $b)) ) {

which is not what was intended. We could fix this in a few different ways: either use the lower precedence form of AND (‘and’), or the higher precedence form of ‘not’:

    if ( !$a && !$b) {

    if (not $a and not $b) {

A more interesting aspect of the logical AND and OR is that they short-circuit their second operand if they do not need to check it to determine the truth or falsity of the entire expression:

    $a = 0;
    $b = 1;
    if ($a and $b) { print "Both a and b are true\n" }

In the above situation, Perl knows that for the an AND operation to be true, both sides must be true — if the left side is false then Perl doesn’t bother checking the right side (it already knows the whole expression must be false). This short-circuit, or lazy evaluation comes in handy in various situations outside of conditional tests — one of which you should be familiar with:

    open(FILE, $file) or die "Can't open $file: $!";

The open() function returns a true value when it succeeds. Perl knows that only one expression must be true for an OR operation to succeed, so if the left expression is true Perl ignores the right hand side. In this case, that means the right hand side is only evaluated if the file could not be opened (in which case, the die() function is called).

Repeating Yourself: The x Operator

Andrew L. Johnson (First published by 2001-09-20)

Loops are the general mechanism for expressing repetition in code. However, there are a couple of instances where loops seem like overkill — repeating strings and repeating lists. For these cases, Perl provides the repetition operator (the ‘x’ operator).

In the case of a repeated string we may simply want to print out lines of 20 ’-’ characters (perhaps as boundary lines in a report). Doing this with a loop is not difficult, though a little cumbersome given the task:

    print "This is the Header\n";
    print '-' for 1 .. 20;
    print "\n";

The x operator allows us to build this string in a single operation:

    print "This is the Header\n";
    print '-' x 20, "\n";

The x operator is a binary operator (takes two operands) and is context sensitive both in terms of the context of the entire operation, and in terms of the context of the left operand). The basic syntax is:

    Left-EXPR x Right-EXPR

The right expression (right operand) is always considered to be in scalar context and treated as an integer. The left expression (left operand) may be either a scalar or a list value.

When the left operand is a scalar, as in the example above, the x operator treats it as a string and returns a new string repeated by the number given as the right operand. So, ’-’ x 20 returns a string of 20 ’-’ characters, and ‘foo’ x 2 returns the string ‘foofoo’. This evaluation remains the same whether the entire expression is in scalar context or in list context — in the example above the expression is an argument to the print() function and therefore in list context.

The x operator can return repeated lists if used in list context and if the left operand is a literal list (ie, wrapped in parentheses):

    my @array = (1,2,3) x 2;
    print "@array"           # prints: 1 2 3 1 2 3

You need to be careful to put the left operand in parentheses for list repetition — using a plain array will not behave as desired:

    my @array = (1,12,42);
    @array = @array x 2;
    print "@array\n";       # prints: 33

In this case, because the left operand is not in parentheses it is evaluated as a scalar, and an array in scalar context returns the number of elements in the array — in this case 3 — thus the x operator has returned the string ‘3’ repeated twice.

Is this operator practical? Consider a case where you want to define a ten element array and initialize each element to 1:

    my @array = (1) x 10; #  my @array = (1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1);

Another useful case is initializing a hash when we’ve read in (or otherwise obtained) a list of keys we wish to initialize to 1:

    my @keys = qw(a b c d);
    my %hash;
    @hash{@keys} = (1) x @keys;

Lastly, a minor cautionary note — remember that ‘x’ is not the multiplication operator:

    my $value = 15 x 2 / 3;
    print "$value\n";       # prints: 505

Here the number 15 is treated as a string and repeated twice to get 1515 which is then treated as a number and divided by 3 to get 505 (rather than the result of 10 you might have wanted). This is one case where Perl’s natural conversion between numbers and strings without warning can mean that a simple typo (‘x’ instead of ’*’) can lead to strange results and be difficult to track down. So, if you have calculations in your code and you are getting bizarre results you might want to check for this particular typo.